References

References

This reference list provides a list of hyperlinks to reach the sources.

I recognize that the Internet is always changing, and so over time some of the links in your copy of the book will expire. So as a service to readers, we will do our best to keep this list up to date so you always have access to useful further reading.

1.      Radiation from terrestrial sources, such as naturally occurring radon, have health implications. Radon is the second-largest cause of lung cancer in the United States, after smoking, and kills more people than drunk driving. If your home has not been radon tested in recent years, you should probably arrange a test. (epa.gov/radon/citizens-guide-radon-guide-protecting-yourself-and-your-family-radon) Radiation in the form of galactic cosmic rays and nuclear particles from the sun are of much less significance for people on Earth, as we are protected to some extent by the atmosphere, the sun’s magnetic field and the Earth’s magnetic field. (swpc.noaa.gov/phenomena/galactic-cosmic-rays)

2.      CDC overweight statistics: IHME: healthdata.org/news-release/vast-majority-american-adults-are-overweight-or-obese-and-weight-growing-problem-among

3.      Mediaeval life expectancy: news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/241864.stm

4.      Life expectancy USA 1900: cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2010/022.pdf

5.      Stephen Paget: nature.com/milestones/milecancer/full/milecancer01.html?foxtrotcallback=true and ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17191105

6.      An example of confirmation of the “soil and seed” model: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7388794?dopt=Abstract&holding=npg

7.      Metastatic cancer: cancer.gov/types/metastatic-cancer

8.      You can read more about the meiosis process here: nature.com/scitable/definition/meiosis-88

9.      Red blood cells do not contain a nucleus or organelles, so they do not carry any DNA. An adult human typically has around 20 trillion or more blood cells, so they easily outnumber the other cells in the body.

10.    How many cells in the human body? (2013) ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23829164

11.    We obtain 23 chromosomes from our mother and 23 from our father. So, that means we have two sets of instructions, in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Because chromosomes come in pairs (one in each pair from the mother, one from the father) there are always two possibilities for hereditary features. Usually the outcome depends on which genes are dominant (or, to put it another way, which genes fail to be expressed). Most of the chromosomes (22 pairs) carry genes that define or predispose the human to have certain physical characteristics. The 23rd pair defines the sex of the recipient. Sex chromosomes are coded X and Y, and females have two X sex chromosomes (XX); males have one X and one Y sex chromosome (XY).

12.    DNA cannot be seen clearly through an optical microscope. The structure of DNA was discovered using X-ray crystallography, and modern electron microscopes can now reveal a lot of the structure. newscientist.com/article/dn22545-dna-imaged-with-electron-microscope-for-the-first-time

13.    Those four chemicals (bases) in the rungs of DNA (represented by code letters A, B, G and T) are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).

14.    The pairs of chemicals are either A-T or C-G.

15.    Each DNA strand also contains a lot of other chemical rungs that don’t define genes. Some of that material is possibly no more than a legacy from our prehistory and may be of no importance. But some may be relevant; really, we don’t yet know. Researchers are finding clues that may implicate non-coding material in inhibiting or promoting certain diseases. I don’t want to speculate, but this is a line of inquiry that may bear fruit at some point in the near future.

16.    ATP is adenosine triphosphate.

17.    Mitochondrial waste products include free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS).

18.    Sugar and neural mitochondrial health: news.yale.edu/2016/02/25/sugar-rush-shrinks-brain-cell-powerhouse

19.    Revised estimates for human and bacteria cells in the body: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4991899

20.    sciencemag.org/news/2016/07/microbes-our-guts-have-been-us-millions-years

21.    Bacteria that synthesize vitamins: now.tufts.edu/articles/microbiome

22.    The Human Microbiome Project: commonfund.nih.gov/hmp/programhighlights

23.    How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being: scientificamerican.com/article/gut-second-brain

24.    Genes associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s: mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alzheimers-disease/in-depth/alzheimers-genes/art-20046552

25.    The Human Genome Project (HGP), initiated in 1990, was a massive collaborative effort to map the entire structure of genes in the human body. The challenge of HGP was to determine the exact sequence of all those billions of base pairs on every strand of DNA. Every human’s personal genome is slightly different, which is why we are all slightly different from the day of birth. How different? Around 99.9 percent of our genomes are exactly the same. The impact of HGP has already been huge. The existence of a genome map allows us to identify which tiny changes within genes are correlated with human characteristics and predispositions. With a map, exploration can continue at a faster rate, and is doing so. As a result, we are now acquiring and making use of insights into the role of genes in many aspects of disease, dysfunction and, indeed, aging. www.genome.gov/11006943/human-genome-project-completion-frequently-asked-questions/

26.    Estimates for the role of genes in aging vary. Most recent estimates put genetic influence in the range of 20 percent to 30 percent (for example, ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822264).

27.    Genetic changes are not always a bad thing because change is fundamental to the mechanism driving biological evolution. If the gene mutation affects an egg cell or a sperm cell, the change (for good or bad) will be passed on to the offspring. If the offspring survives long enough to breed, then that change will be retained in future generations, whether it is a beneficial change or a serious problem. Most cellular damage does not affect egg cells or sperm cells, so it is not passed on to the next generation. What is a gene mutation/how do mutations occur: ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/mutationsanddisorders/genemutation

28.    In bacteria, each DNA strand forms a circle, and a circle has no loose ends, so the problem of telomere shortening doesn’t occur in bacteria.

29.    Some cells can regenerate telomeres, given the right conditions, but that’s unusual. Research on telomere regeneration is extensive, but we’re not there yet.

30.    The DNA methylation process its complicated and still not fully understood, but essentially the end result is that certain methyl-based compounds are inserted into the DNA where they have the effect of suppressing the action of the gene sequence with which they are associated. Role of DNA methylation in gene expression: nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-role-of-methylation-in-gene-expression-1070

31.    Ibid, and ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873040

32.    Hypomethalization and cancer: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2873040; hypermethalization also has been linked to birth defects in babies: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25587870.

33.    Impact on DNA methylation in cancer prevention and therapy by bioactive dietary components: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2904405

34.    Smoking has a very broad, long-lasting impact on the human genome: sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160921215106.htm

35.    A DNA methylation biomarker of alcohol consumption: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27843151

36.    While oxygen is the most common oxidizing agent, oxygen itself may not be involved in all oxidizing reactions. Oxygen readily accepts electrons, and when it does the substance that it steals an electron from is said to be “oxidized.” The oxygen atom itself is said to be “reduced.” Consequently, any substance that behaves like oxygen, (specifically that grabs electrons in the same way that oxygen does) is described as an oxidizing agent. This may be archaic terminology, but because it has a long history, and is entirely familiar to chemists, it still persists, confusing though it might be to those who snoozed during chemistry classes.

37.    Free radicals and antioxidants: nccih.nih.gov/health/antioxidants/introduction.htm

38.    AGE and diabetes: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1262363609001931

39.    Aging of the skin linked to glycation: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3583887

40.    TAGE (toxic AGEs) hypothesis in various chronic diseases: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15288366

41.    TAGE (toxic AGEs) hypothesis in various chronic diseases: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16869341

42.    Tobacco is a source of toxic reactive glycation products: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC28407

43.    Expression of Advanced Glycation End products on Sun-Exposed and Non-Exposed Cutaneous Sites during the Ageing Process in Humans: journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075003

44.    Exercise reduces circulating AGEs: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0899900714004420

45.    Benjamin Gardner and Susanne Meisel, (blogs.ucl.ac.uk/bsh/2012/06/29/busting-the-21-days-habit-formation-myth) and Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Potts, H. W. W., & Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: Modeling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 998-1009. (onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ejsp.674/abstract)

46.    nccih.nih.gov/health/pain/chronic.htm

47.    medlineplus.gov/chronicpain.html

48.    Stephani Sutherland, Rethinking Relief. Scientific American Mind, May/June 2017

49.    The science behind procrastination: psychologicalscience.org/observer/why-wait-the-science-behind-procrastination

50.    Timothy Pychyl: psychologicalscience.org/observer/why-wait-the-science-behind-procrastination

51.    Tobacco-related mortality: cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/tobacco_related_mortality/index.htm

52.    Alcohol dependency and early death: sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150402092057.htm

53.    VOCs exist in many household products and can cause irritation and nausea. In lab tests, some VOCs have caused cancer and nervous system damage. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Commonly Used Products: health.ny.gov/environmental/indoors/voc.htm

54.    Does tobacco smoke contain harmful chemicals? cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/tobacco/cessation-fact-sheet#q1

55.    Smoking has a very broad, long-lasting impact on the human genome: sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/09/160921215106.htm

56.    who.int/tobacco/quitting/benefits/en

57.    The health arguments in favor of and against alcohol consumption are laid out well in this Healthline article: healthline.com/nutrition/alcohol-good-or-bad#section1

58.    What is a standard drink? niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/what-standard-drink

59.    Habit Reversal Therapy: psychcentral.com/blog/archives/2012/07/17/the-golden-rule-of-habit-change

60.    Motivational Interviewing: sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150504101258.htm

61.    Medications to help reduce alcohol consumption: npr.org/sections/health-shots/2016/09/26/495491533/medications-can-help-people-stop-abusing-alcohol-but-many-dont-know; medications to help stop smoking: smokefree.gov/tools-tips/medications-can-help-you-quit

62.    Ways to stop smoking: smokefree.gov/tools-tips/explore-quit-methods; tips to reduce alcohol consumption: rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/Thinking-about-a-change/Strategies-for-cutting-down/Tips-To-Try.aspx

63.    The skin microbiome: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3535073

64.    The other layers of the epidermis are the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum, which are essentially transition layers between the living cells in the stratum basale and the dead cells in the stratum corneum. Sometimes, the stratum corneum also is described as part of the epidermis.

65.    The upper layer of the dermis (called the papillary) mainly consists of connective tissue binding the dermis to the epidermis layer above. A deeper layer, made of more elastin and collagen, is folded irregularly (“reticulated”) where it meets and connects to the subcutaneous fat below.

66.    Visible blue light causes inflammation and oxidative stress: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014483515000044. Blue light at night affects circadian rhythms: health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/blue-light-has-a-dark-side.

67.    skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/skin-cancer-facts

68.    cancer.org.au/preventing-cancer/sun-protection/about-skin-cancer.html

69.    The UV subgroup wavelengths ranges are: UVA 320-400nm, UVB 290-320nm, and UVC 100-290mm.

70.    UVA radiation damages DNA: sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100701103415.htm

71.    Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642156

72.    Vitamin D for Health A Global Perspective: mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(13)00404-7/fulltext; ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3356951

73.    Retinyl palmitate in sunscreen: ewg.org/sunscreen/report/the-problem-with-vitamin-a/#.Wp7B-ZP4-Rs

74.    CDC statistics on US physical activity: cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/exercise.htm

75.    Health risks associated with inactivity: who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/physical_activity_text/en

76.    Regular moderate exercise reduces advanced glycation: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19608208t regular

77.    Exercise improves your skin: psychologytoday.com/blog/shake-your-beauty/200904/improve-your-skin-exercise

78.    Exercise reverses aging? well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/04/16/younger-skin-through-exercise

79.    Exercise reduces depression: mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/in-depth/depression-and-exercise/art-20046495

80.    How much exercise per day? mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/expert-answers/exercise/faq-20057916

81.    Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans, Herman Pontzner et al. cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(15)01577-8?_returnURL=http%3A%2F

82.    Physical activity and resting metabolic rate: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14692598

83.    Exercise and Sleep: berkeleywellness.com/healthy-mind/sleep/article/exercise-and-sleep

84.    Making Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult’s Life: cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/adding-pa/activities-olderadults.htm

85.    Heart Rate Exercise Zones: healthyforgood.heart.org/move-more/articles/target-heart-rates#.WfvB7baZOR

86.    Exercise and skin conditions: webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/acne/features/exercise#1

87.    The Right Way to Stretch Before Exercise: well.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/01/21/stretching-back-to-the-past

88.    Jumping jacks: wikihow.com/Perform-Jumping-Jacks

89.    Incidental Physical Activities (IPA): sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110628113141.htm

90.    Hotel Maids Challenge the Placebo Effect: npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=17792517

91.    Sex makes you look younger and live longer: cosmopolitan.com/uk/love-sex/sex/a9538529/health-benefits-of-regular-sex and prevention.com/sex/7-things-happen-when-you-stop-having-sex?

92.    Sitting is bad: cnn.com/2015/01/21/health/sitting-will-kill-you/index.html

93.    Harvard Business Review: hbr.org/2015/12/proof-that-positive-work-cultures-are-more-productive

94.    A Global History of Sitting Down: theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/08/chairs-history-witold-rybczynski/497657

95.    6,000-Year-Old Knee Joints Suggest Osteoarthritis Isn’t Just Wear and Tear: npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/08/15/543402095/creaky-knees?sc=tw

96.    Foam roller: breakingmuscle.com/fitness/what-is-a-foam-roller-how-do-i-use-it-and-why-does-it-hurt

97.    Muscle strength training exercises at home (no equipment, except two exercises need simple dumbbell weights): cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/videos/index.htm

98.    Exercises: agelaterbook.com

99.    Muscle strengthening at the gym: cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/videos/index.htm#MuscleGym

100.  HIIT, American College of Sports Medicine: acsm.org/docs/brochures/high-intensity-interval-training.pdf

101.  “Overweight” is defined as having a Body Mass Index of between 25 and 29.9 while “obesity” is defined as being over 30 BMI.

102.  OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Obesity update 2017: oecd.org/health/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2017.pdf; WHO Obesity in Southeast Asia who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/obesity_text/en

103.  Waist to Hip ratio: healthline.com/health/waist-to-hip-ratio

104.  Obese people have less brain tissue: newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/more-obesity-blues-100147

105.  Science Compared Every Diet, and the Winner Is Real Food: theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/03/science-compared-every-diet-and-the-winner-is-real-food/284595

106.  Heart disease on the rise: news.heart.org/cdc-u-s-deaths-from-heart-disease-cancer-on-the-rise

107.  Paul A. Offit, Pandora’s Lab, excerpt in National Geographic, June 2017

108.  npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/03/28/295332576/why-we-got-fatter-during-the-fat-free-food-boom

109.  Saturated Fats: A Perspective from Lactation and Milk Composition: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950926

110.  Saturated fats are not the problem: annals.org/aim/article/1846638/association-dietary-circulating-supplement-fatty-acids-coronary-risk-systematic-review

111.  CLA trans fats: cbsnews.com/news/are-all-trans-fats-as-bad-as-we-think; ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC201014

112.  Definition of vitamin: en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/vitamin

113.  The human body cannot produce vitamins, but the molecule we call vitamin D is in fact synthesized in the skin. This makes it, strictly speaking a hormone, not a vitamin (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2825606), but traditional usage is now well established. Vitamins A, B1 (thiamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), B12, and K all can be synthesized within the human body, but they are synthesized by gut bacteria, not by human organs, so they still count as vitamins. The microflora and nutrition: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7670

114.  Soluble and insoluble fiber: webmd.com/diet/features/insoluble-soluble-fiber

115.  Fiber-Famished Gut Microbes Linked to Poor Health: scientificamerican.com/article/fiber-famished-gut-microbes-linked-to-poor-health1

116.  Inhibitory actions of selected natural substances on formation of advanced glycation end products and advanced oxidation protein products: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5041538

117.  Inhibitory actions of selected natural substances on formation of advanced glycation end products and advanced oxidation protein products: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5041538

118.  Resveratrol inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis activity: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10903896

119.  Onions, sleep and mood: medicalnewstoday.com/articles/276714.php

120.  Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11697022

121.  Lectins and digestive problems: healthline.com/nutrition/dietary-lectins#section2

122.  Soy bad or good? healthline.com/nutrition/is-soy-bad-for-you-or-good#section1; soy possible side effects: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4270274

123.  Lectins and digestive problems: healthline.com/nutrition/dietary-lectins#section2

124.  healthline.com/nutrition/11-health-benefits-of-fish

125.  Longevity in Japan: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5400241 and independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/high-life-expectancy-in-japan-partly-down-to-diet-carbohydrates-vegetables-fruit-fish-meat-a6956011.html

126.  Plastic in the oceans: news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/02/150212-ocean-debris-plastic-garbage-patches-science

127.  Fish: Friend or Foe? hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/fish

128.  For example, here is the healthy fish and sustainability guidance provided by Washington state: doh.wa.gov/CommunityandEnvironment/Food/Fish/HealthyFishGuide

129.  A more general-purpose source of useful information about both sustainability and pollutants is at: seafood.edf.org

130.  An example of an encyclopedia of herbs and spices: harpercollins.com/9780062375230/the-encyclopedia-of-spices-and-herbs

131.  Ruminant-derived trans fats: dairynutrition.ca/scientific-evidence/experts-summaries/who-report-on-trans-fats-effects-of-industrial-versus-ruminant-trans-fat

132.  Dairy fat and cardiovascular disease: hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2016/10/25/dairy-fat-cardiovascular-disease-risk

133.  Could low-fat be worse than whole milk? theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/oct/09/low-fat-whole-milk-usda-dietary-guidelines

134.  Why butter is good for you: healthline.com/nutrition/7-reasons-why-butter-is-good-for-you#section3

135.  Eggs and heart health: health.harvard.edu/heart-health/are-eggs-risky-for-heart-health

136.  Nutritional value of egg whites vs. yolks: ahealthiermichigan.org/2011/10/11/the-nurtional-value-of-egg-whites-versus-egg-yolks-what-do-you-use

137.  Too much water: scientificamerican.com/article/strange-but-true-drinking-too-much-water-can-kill

138.  How much water to drink: mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/water/art-20044256

139.  IoM report on water intake: www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=10925

140.  Electrolytes: www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/153188.php

141.  Planning a healthy vegetarian diet: mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/vegetarian-diet/art-20046446?pg=2

142.  Sugar in Britain: statistics from the book, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History, by Sidney Mintz, quoted in theguardian.com/uk/2007/oct/13/lifeandhealth.britishidentity

143.  USA sugar consumption 2008: healthline.com/nutrition/how-much-sugar-per-day

144.  npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/07/17/537262142/artificial-sweeteners-dont-help-people-lose-weight-review-finds?sc=tw

145.  Sucralose can potentially damage your gut microbiome balance: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800291

146.  Artificial sweeteners: health.harvard.edu/blog/artificial-sweeteners-sugar-free-but-at-what-cost-201207165030

147.  Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3704564

148.  HCA and PAH: cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/cooked-meats-fact-sheet

149.  Note that nitrates and nitrites, in and of themselves, are probably not harmful, and may even be beneficial (healthline.com/nutrition/are-nitrates-and-nitrites-harmful). Nitrates occur naturally in lots of vegetables and can be converted in the body to nitrites (ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15223073), which in turn creates nitric oxide, known to help in the control of blood pressure.

150.  BPA, Bisphenol A: scientificamerican.com/article/just-how-harmful-are-bisphenol-a-plastics

151.  While there has been a general reduction in trans fats in food products, trans fats may exist in amounts less than 0.5 percent, even in packages marked as containing 0 percent. Trans fats, zero doesn’t mean zero: npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/08/28/343971652/trans-fats-linger-stubbornly-in-the-food-supply

152.  The Okinawa Diet and Hara Hachi Bu: okinawa-diet.com/okinawa_diet/hara_hachi_bu.html

153.  More lycopene available from cooked tomato: sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020422073341.htm

154.  Soil depletion and nutrition loss: scientificamerican.com/article/soil-depletion-and-nutrition-loss

155.  Mental health: a state of well-being: who.int/features/factfiles/mental_health/en

156.  What is homeostasis? scientificamerican.com/article/what-is-homeostasis

157.  Benefits of mindfulness: apa.org/monitor/2012/07-08/ce-corner.aspx; Mindfulness interventions: psy.cmu.edu/~creswell/papers

158.  health.harvard.edu/heart-health/meditation-offers-significant-heart-benefits

159.  Mindfulness a chore? psychologytoday.com/blog/think-act-be/201612/5-attitudes-behind-the-mindfulness-backlash

160.  MBSR: positivepsychologyprogram.com/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-mbsr

161.  MBSR reduction: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15256293

162.  umassmed.edu/cfm/mindfulness-based-programs/mbsr-courses/about-mbsr

163.  mbct.com

164.  Reviews of mindfulness books: positivepsychologyprogram.com/mindfulness-books

165.  Online sources for getting started in mindfulness: mindful.org/meditation/mindfulness-getting-started

166.  Examples of online Mindfulness courses: bemindfulonline.com/the-course; harvardpilgrim.org/portal/page?_pageid=1434,360741&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL; audiodharma.org/series/1/talk/1762

167.  Mindfulness apps: mindful.org/free-mindfulness-apps-worthy-of-your-attention; healthline.com/health/mental-health/top-meditation-iphone-android-apps#intro1

168.  Mindful Breathing Practice: ggia.berkeley.edu/practice/mindful_breathing#

169.  The value of sadness: psychologytoday.com/blog/compassion-matters/201507/the-value-sadness

170.  Davidson, K.W., Mostofsky, E. & Whang, W. (2010). “Don’t worry, be happy: Positive effect and reduced 10-year incident coronary heart disease; The Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey.” European Heart Journal, 31, 1065-1070. academic.oup.com/eurheartj/article/31/9/1065/590670/Don-t-worry-be-happy-positive-affect-and-reduced

171.  Research shows how stress can lead to heart attacks and stroke: bhf.org.uk/heart-matters-magazine/news/behind-the-headlines/stress-and-heart-disease

172.  Stress fuels cancer spread by triggering master gene: medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265254.php

173.  The effects of stress exposure on prefrontal cortex: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244027

174.  Psychological stress, through an increase in glucocorticoids, compromises the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and so can reduce the effectiveness of the barrier function: Denda, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Elias, P.M.; Feingold, K.R. (2000). “Stress alters cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis.” Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 278 (2): R367–372. PMID 10666137. ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10666137

175.  medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317631.php

176.  City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans: nature.com/nature/journal/v474/n7352/full/nature10190.html

177.  Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2017). World Happiness Report 2017, New York; Sustainable Development Solutions Network: worldhappiness.report/ed/2017

178.  Heart Rate Variability: datasci.com/solutions/cardiovascular/heart-rate-variability

179.  Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386-396.

180.  Download PDF of the Perceived Stress Scale form: google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&ved=0ahUKEwjppbGS29fWAhUJrFQKHdfkAtsQFghYMAY&url=https%3A%2F%2Fdas.nh.gov%2Fwellness%2FDocs%2FPercieved%2520Stress%2520Scale.pdf&usg=AOvVaw3keuc8anKghk_HPvN8dYVF

181.  Two examples of websites for PSS-based stress testing (there are many more): bemindfulonline.com/test-your-stress and highered.mheducation.com/sites/0073381225/student_view0/chapter4/self-assessment_4_7.html

182.  Sleep statistics: sleepassociation.org/about-sleep/sleep-statistics

183.  Why lack of sleep is bad for your health: nhs.uk/Livewell/tiredness-and-fatigue/Pages/lack-of-sleep-health-risks.aspx

184.  While you call it quits for the day, your mind does some serious work: sleep.org/articles/brain-during-sleep

185.  How sleep deprivation affects your heart: sleepfoundation.org/sleep-news/how-sleep-deprivation-affects-your-heart

186.  Sleep and immune function: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3256323

187.  World Sleep Survey: worldsleepsurvey.com/sleep-score

188.  The Physiology of Sleep—The Cardiovascular System: sleepdisorders.sleepfoundation.org/chapter-1-normal-sleep/the-physiology-of-sleep-the-cardiovascular-system

189.  Sleep and immune function: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3256323

190.  Sleep-stress cycle: apa.org/news/press/releases/stress/2013/sleep.aspx

191.  How to break the stress-sleep cycle: ahchealthenews.com/2016/11/28/break-vicious-stress-sleep-cycle-2

192.  Sleep deprived: medicaldaily.com/nearly-third-americans-are-sleep-deprived-240273

193.  The myth of the eight hour sleep: bbc.com/news/magazine-16964783

194.  Siesta is good for you: telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/9458799/Spanish-scientists-prove-the-siesta-is-good-for-you-and-issue-guidelines-for-a-perfect-nap.html

195.  How many neurons do we have? ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27187682. Also, “The search for true numbers of neurons and glial cells in the human brain: A review of 150 years of cell counting.” von Bartheld CS1, Bahney J2, Herculano-Houzel S3.

196.  blogs.scientificamerican.com/brainwaves/know-your-neurons-what-is-the-ratio-of-glia-to-neurons-in-the-brain

197.  blogs.scientificamerican.com/brainwaves/know-your-neurons-meet-the-glia

198.  Glia: scientificamerican.com/article/without-glia-brain-would-starve

199.  Glial cells: scientificamerican.com/article/the-root-of-thought-what

200.  The effects of stress exposure on prefrontal cortex: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4244027

201.  A two-year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomized controlled trial. Tia Ngandu and others in Lancet Neurology, Vol 15, No. 5. April 2016.

202.  “Experts agree that in the vast majority of cases, Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic conditions, probably develops as a result of complex interactions among multiple factors, including age, genetics, environment, lifestyle and coexisting medical conditions.” (alz.org)

203.  Mental strain helps maintain a healthy brain: health.harvard.edu/blog/mental-strain-helps-maintain-a-healthy-brain-201211055495

204.  “A number of studies indicate that maintaining strong social connections and keeping mentally active as we age might lower the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s.” (alz.org)

205.  “Regular physical exercise may be a beneficial strategy to lower the risk of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. Exercise may directly benefit brain cells by increasing blood and oxygen flow in the brain.” (alz.org)

206.  The expression “mens sana in corpora sano” (a healthy mind in a healthy body) is attributed to the poet Juvenal around 100 A.D.

207.  “Several conditions known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease—such as high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol—also increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. Some autopsy studies show that as many as 80 percent of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease also have cardiovascular disease.” (alz.org)

208.  “Current evidence suggests that heart-healthy eating may also help protect the brain.” (alz.org)

209.  Serine and neuroprotection: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343079

210.  Omega-3 for the brain: healthline.com/nutrition/omega-3-6-9-overview#section1

211.  Why your brain needs water: psychologytoday.com/us/blog/you-illuminated/201010/why-your-brain-needs-water

212.  The Gut Microbiome and the Brain: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259177

213.  Parkinson’s disease “may start in gut”: bbc.com/news/health-38173287

214.  MIND=Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay

215.  DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

216.  Some biologists argue that the eye and optic nerves count as part of the CNS because they are so close to and partly protected by the brain. Others disagree. This is an academic quibble.

217.  NFL CTE survey: nytimes.com/interactive

218.  spineuniverse.com/conditions/spinal-cord-injury/airbags-seat-belts-spine-protection

219.  Lead poisoning and health: who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs379/en

220.  Common waterborne contaminants: wqa.org/learn-about-water/common-contaminants

221.  Gene therapy: scientificamerican.com/article/experts-gene-therapy; sciencecare.com/blog-gene-therapy-future-medicine

222.  TALEN and CRISPR: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4207558

223.  SPC: webmd.com/back-pain/guide/spinal-cord-stimulation

224.  Bioelectronics: nytimes.com/2014/05/25/magazine/can-the-nervous-system-be-hacked.html; theguardian.com/breakthrough-science/2017/jun/06/the-future-of-medical-technology-bioelectronics-and-the-treatment-of-chronic-conditions

225.  Cancer, evolution research: scientificamerican.com/article/evolution-research-could-revolutionize-cancer-therapy

226.  thelocal.de/20171123/life-expectancy-much-lower-in-germany-compared-to-eu-neighbours-study

227.  Liver damage: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22701432

228.  Alcohol consumption and cancer risk: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21864055

229.  Alcohol use before and during pregnancy implications for the prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19027093

230.  Brain damage from alcohol: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21487421

231.  Weight gain from alcohol: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15483203

232.  Weight gain in relation to history of amount and type of alcohol: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12587005

233.  Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes—a systematic review and meta-analysis: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343207

234.  Links between alcohol abuse and depression: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255375

235.  Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10857962

236.  Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12636463

237.  Alcohol and risk of becoming overweight: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19255375

238.  Alcohol and cardiovascular health—the razor-sharp double-edged sword: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17825708

239.  Relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and adiponectin and insulin sensitivity: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15111562

240.  Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17888186

241.  Silicon and bone health: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658806

242.  Arginine: webmd.com/diet/supplement-guide-l-arginine#1

243.  Asparagine and breast cancer: theguardian.com/science/2018/feb/07/cutting-asparagus-could-prevent-spread-of-breast-cancer-study-shows

244.  Creatine: aminoacidstudies.org/creatine

245.  Creatine as a supplement: webmd.com/men/creatine#2-5

246.  Creatine problems: mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/creatine/safety/hrb-20059125

247.  N-acetyl cysteine: webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1018-n-acetyl%20cysteine.aspx?activeingredientid=1018

248.  Glycine: aminoacidstudies.org/glycine

249.  Glycine uses and risks: webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/glycine-uses-and-risks#1

250.  Lysine: examine.com/supplements/lysine

251.  Lysine for cold sores: examine.com/supplements/lysine; peoplespharmacy.com/2016/12/18/can-you-avoid-cold-sores-by-taking-l-lysine

252.  Methionine: pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/L-methionine#section=Top

253.  Serine as neuro-protective: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343079

254.  Serine: nutritional-supplements-health-guide.com/serine.html

255.  Threonine: webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-1083-threonine.aspx?activeingredientid=1083&activeingredientname=threonine

256.  Tryptophan: pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/L-tryptophan#section=Top

257.  Tyrosine: pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6057#section=Top

258.  Valine: pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/L-valine#section=Top

259.  Thiamine: webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-965-THIAMINE+VITAMIN+B1.aspx

260.  Riboflavin: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Riboflavin-HealthProfessional

261.  Niacin: webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-924-NIACIN+AND+NIACINAMIDE+VITAMIN+B3.aspx?activeIngredientId=924&activeIngredientName=NIACIN+AND+NIACINAMIDE+(VITAMIN+B3)&source=2

262.  vitamin B6: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminB6-HealthProfessional

263.  vitamin B6: mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-vitamin-b6/art-20363468

264.  Biotin: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional

265.  medicalnewstoday.com/articles/219718.php

266.  Benefits and Risks of Folic Acid: sciencebasedmedicine.org/the-benefits-and-risks-of-folic-acid-supplementation

267.  vitamin B12: ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminB12-HealthProfessional

268.  vitamin B12 supplements for vegans: vegansociety.com/resources/nutrition-and-health/nutrients/vitamin-b12/what-every-vegan-should-know-about-vitamin-b12

269.  vitamin E: healthline.com/health/all-about-vitamin-e#ways-to-get-it7

270.  Almonds: healthline.com/nutrition/9-proven-benefits-of-almonds

271.  Brazil nuts: bbcgoodfood.com/howto/guide/health-benefits-brazil-nuts

272.  Cinnamon and Chronic Diseases: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27771918

273.  Most supermarket cinnamon is the Saigon variety, also called cassia cinnamon; recent research suggests that Ceylon cinnamon is just as good, and less likely to harm your liver. peoplespharmacy.com/2013/12/30/cinnamon-offers-health-benefits-but-also-carries-serious-risks An ingredient in cassia cinnamon called coumarin increases the chance of liver damage and might also interact adversely with some painkillers and anticoagulants. Ceylon cinnamon, which is harvested from a different species of tree and contains much less coumarin, provides at least some of the same health benefits without the adverse affects on the liver. It is also possible to buy cassia cinnamon extract where the coumarin has been removed. But don’t expect any health benefits from eating cinnamon pastries no matter which type of cinnamon they use. (Too much sugar and white flour.)

274.  Garlic: healthline.com/nutrition/11-proven-health-benefits-of-garlic#section1

275.  Ginger root: medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265990.php

276.  Green Tea benefits: healthline.com/nutrition/10-benefits-of-green-tea-extract#section9

277.  Nuts for nutrition: healthyeating.sfgate.com/nuts-eat-nutrition-1812.html

278.  Salvia for dementia therapy: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12895683

279.  Walnuts are the healthiest nut: bbc.com/news/health-12865291

280.  NGCS: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4406911

281.  The list of causes of digestive problems is long. In addition to poor gut flora condition and mental stress, we can add lack of exercise, too much alcohol, too much sugar and refined starches, undercooked lectin-containing foods, eating too much at one time, and more. There are many ingredients in wheat (other than gluten) that are known to contribute to the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), so reducing wheat intake may help some people with IBS.

282.  Benefits of lectins: healthline.com/nutrition/dietary-lectins. Medical use of lectins: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25730388

283.  Lectins and digestive problems: healthline.com/nutrition/dietary-lectins#section2