This reference list provides a list of hyperlinks to reach the sources.

I recognize that the Internet is always changing, and so over time some of the links in your copy of the book will expire. So as a service to readers, we will do our best to keep this list up to date so you always have access to useful further reading.

1.      Radiation from terrestrial sources, such as naturally occurring radon, have health implications. Radon is the second-largest cause of lung cancer in the United States, after smoking, and kills more people than drunk driving. If your home has not been radon tested in recent years, you should probably arrange a test. ( Radiation in the form of galactic cosmic rays and nuclear particles from the sun are of much less significance for people on Earth, as we are protected to some extent by the atmosphere, the sun’s magnetic field and the Earth’s magnetic field. (

2.      CDC overweight statistics: IHME:

3.      Mediaeval life expectancy:

4.      Life expectancy USA 1900:

5.      Stephen Paget: and

6.      An example of confirmation of the “soil and seed” model:

7.      Metastatic cancer:

8.      You can read more about the meiosis process here:

9.      Red blood cells do not contain a nucleus or organelles, so they do not carry any DNA. An adult human typically has around 20 trillion or more blood cells, so they easily outnumber the other cells in the body.

10.    How many cells in the human body? (2013)

11.    We obtain 23 chromosomes from our mother and 23 from our father. So, that means we have two sets of instructions, in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Because chromosomes come in pairs (one in each pair from the mother, one from the father) there are always two possibilities for hereditary features. Usually the outcome depends on which genes are dominant (or, to put it another way, which genes fail to be expressed). Most of the chromosomes (22 pairs) carry genes that define or predispose the human to have certain physical characteristics. The 23rd pair defines the sex of the recipient. Sex chromosomes are coded X and Y, and females have two X sex chromosomes (XX); males have one X and one Y sex chromosome (XY).

12.    DNA cannot be seen clearly through an optical microscope. The structure of DNA was discovered using X-ray crystallography, and modern electron microscopes can now reveal a lot of the structure.

13.    Those four chemicals (bases) in the rungs of DNA (represented by code letters A, B, G and T) are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).

14.    The pairs of chemicals are either A-T or C-G.

15.    Each DNA strand also contains a lot of other chemical rungs that don’t define genes. Some of that material is possibly no more than a legacy from our prehistory and may be of no importance. But some may be relevant; really, we don’t yet know. Researchers are finding clues that may implicate non-coding material in inhibiting or promoting certain diseases. I don’t want to speculate, but this is a line of inquiry that may bear fruit at some point in the near future.

16.    ATP is adenosine triphosphate.

17.    Mitochondrial waste products include free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS).

18.    Sugar and neural mitochondrial health:

19.    Revised estimates for human and bacteria cells in the body:


21.    Bacteria that synthesize vitamins:

22.    The Human Microbiome Project:

23.    How the Gut’s “Second Brain” Influences Mood and Well-Being:

24.    Genes associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s:

25.    The Human Genome Project (HGP), initiated in 1990, was a massive collaborative effort to map the entire structure of genes in the human body. The challenge of HGP was to determine the exact sequence of all those billions of base pairs on every strand of DNA. Every human’s personal genome is slightly different, which is why we are all slightly different from the day of birth. How different? Around 99.9 percent of our genomes are exactly the same. The impact of HGP has already been huge. The existence of a genome map allows us to identify which tiny changes within genes are correlated with human characteristics and predispositions. With a map, exploration can continue at a faster rate, and is doing so. As a result, we are now acquiring and making use of insights into the role of genes in many aspects of disease, dysfunction and, indeed, aging.

26.    Estimates for the role of genes in aging vary. Most recent estimates put genetic influence in the range of 20 percent to 30 percent (for example,

27.    Genetic changes are not always a bad thing because change is fundamental to the mechanism driving biological evolution. If the gene mutation affects an egg cell or a sperm cell, the change (for good or bad) will be passed on to the offspring. If the offspring survives long enough to breed, then that change will be retained in future generations, whether it is a beneficial change or a serious problem. Most cellular damage does not affect egg cells or sperm cells, so it is not passed on to the next generation. What is a gene mutation/how do mutations occur:

28.    In bacteria, each DNA strand forms a circle, and a circle has no loose ends, so the problem of telomere shortening doesn’t occur in bacteria.

29.    Some cells can regenerate telomeres, given the right conditions, but that’s unusual. Research on telomere regeneration is extensive, but we’re not there yet.

30.    The DNA methylation process its complicated and still not fully understood, but essentially the end result is that certain methyl-based compounds are inserted into the DNA where they have the effect of suppressing the action of the gene sequence with which they are associated. Role of DNA methylation in gene expression:

31.    Ibid, and

32.    Hypomethalization and cancer:; hypermethalization also has been linked to birth defects in babies:

33.    Impact on DNA methylation in cancer prevention and therapy by bioactive dietary components:

34.    Smoking has a very broad, long-lasting impact on the human genome:

35.    A DNA methylation biomarker of alcohol consumption:

36.    While oxygen is the most common oxidizing agent, oxygen itself may not be involved in all oxidizing reactions. Oxygen readily accepts electrons, and when it does the substance that it steals an electron from is said to be “oxidized.” The oxygen atom itself is said to be “reduced.” Consequently, any substance that behaves like oxygen, (specifically that grabs electrons in the same way that oxygen does) is described as an oxidizing agent. This may be archaic terminology, but because it has a long history, and is entirely familiar to chemists, it still persists, confusing though it might be to those who snoozed during chemistry classes.

37.    Free radicals and antioxidants:

38.    AGE and diabetes:

39.    Aging of the skin linked to glycation:

40.    TAGE (toxic AGEs) hypothesis in various chronic diseases:

41.    TAGE (toxic AGEs) hypothesis in various chronic diseases:

42.    Tobacco is a source of toxic reactive glycation products:

43.    Expression of Advanced Glycation End products on Sun-Exposed and Non-Exposed Cutaneous Sites during the Ageing Process in Humans:

44.    Exercise reduces circulating AGEs:

45.    Benjamin Gardner and Susanne Meisel, ( and Lally, P., van Jaarsveld, C. H. M., Potts, H. W. W., & Wardle, J. (2010). How are habits formed: Modeling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 998-1009. (



48.    Stephani Sutherland, Rethinking Relief. Scientific American Mind, May/June 2017

49.    The science behind procrastination:

50.    Timothy Pychyl:

51.    Tobacco-related mortality:

52.    Alcohol dependency and early death:

53.    VOCs exist in many household products and can cause irritation and nausea. In lab tests, some VOCs have caused cancer and nervous system damage. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Commonly Used Products:

54.    Does tobacco smoke contain harmful chemicals?

55.    Smoking has a very broad, long-lasting impact on the human genome:


57.    The health arguments in favor of and against alcohol consumption are laid out well in this Healthline article:

58.    What is a standard drink?

59.    Habit Reversal Therapy:

60.    Motivational Interviewing:

61.    Medications to help reduce alcohol consumption:; medications to help stop smoking:

62.    Ways to stop smoking:; tips to reduce alcohol consumption:

63.    The skin microbiome:

64.    The other layers of the epidermis are the stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum, which are essentially transition layers between the living cells in the stratum basale and the dead cells in the stratum corneum. Sometimes, the stratum corneum also is described as part of the epidermis.

65.    The upper layer of the dermis (called the papillary) mainly consists of connective tissue binding the dermis to the epidermis layer above. A deeper layer, made of more elastin and collagen, is folded irregularly (“reticulated”) where it meets and connects to the subcutaneous fat below.

66.    Visible blue light causes inflammation and oxidative stress: Blue light at night affects circadian rhythms:



69.    The UV subgroup wavelengths ranges are: UVA 320-400nm, UVB 290-320nm, and UVC 100-290mm.

70.    UVA radiation damages DNA:

71.    Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship

72.    Vitamin D for Health A Global Perspective:;

73.    Retinyl palmitate in sunscreen:

74.    CDC statistics on US physical activity:

75.    Health risks associated with inactivity:

76.    Regular moderate exercise reduces advanced glycation: regular

77.    Exercise improves your skin:

78.    Exercise reverses aging?

79.    Exercise reduces depression:

80.    How much exercise per day?

81.    Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult Humans, Herman Pontzner et al.

82.    Physical activity and resting metabolic rate:

83.    Exercise and Sleep:

84.    Making Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult’s Life:

85.    Heart Rate Exercise Zones:

86.    Exercise and skin conditions:

87.    The Right Way to Stretch Before Exercise:

88.    Jumping jacks:

89.    Incidental Physical Activities (IPA):

90.    Hotel Maids Challenge the Placebo Effect:

91.    Sex makes you look younger and live longer: and

92.    Sitting is bad:

93.    Harvard Business Review:

94.    A Global History of Sitting Down:

95.    6,000-Year-Old Knee Joints Suggest Osteoarthritis Isn’t Just Wear and Tear:

96.    Foam roller:

97.    Muscle strength training exercises at home (no equipment, except two exercises need simple dumbbell weights):

98.    Exercises:

99.    Muscle strengthening at the gym:

100.  HIIT, American College of Sports Medicine:

101.  “Overweight” is defined as having a Body Mass Index of between 25 and 29.9 while “obesity” is defined as being over 30 BMI.

102.  OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Obesity update 2017:; WHO Obesity in Southeast Asia

103.  Waist to Hip ratio:

104.  Obese people have less brain tissue:

105.  Science Compared Every Diet, and the Winner Is Real Food:

106.  Heart disease on the rise:

107.  Paul A. Offit, Pandora’s Lab, excerpt in National Geographic, June 2017


109.  Saturated Fats: A Perspective from Lactation and Milk Composition:

110.  Saturated fats are not the problem:

111.  CLA trans fats:;

112.  Definition of vitamin:

113.  The human body cannot produce vitamins, but the molecule we call vitamin D is in fact synthesized in the skin. This makes it, strictly speaking a hormone, not a vitamin (, but traditional usage is now well established. Vitamins A, B1 (thiamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), B12, and K all can be synthesized within the human body, but they are synthesized by gut bacteria, not by human organs, so they still count as vitamins. The microflora and nutrition:

114.  Soluble and insoluble fiber:

115.  Fiber-Famished Gut Microbes Linked to Poor Health:

116.  Inhibitory actions of selected natural substances on formation of advanced glycation end products and advanced oxidation protein products:

117.  Inhibitory actions of selected natural substances on formation of advanced glycation end products and advanced oxidation protein products:

118.  Resveratrol inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and collagen synthesis activity:

119.  Onions, sleep and mood:

120.  Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement:

121.  Lectins and digestive problems:

122.  Soy bad or good?; soy possible side effects:

123.  Lectins and digestive problems:


125.  Longevity in Japan: and

126.  Plastic in the oceans:

127.  Fish: Friend or Foe?

128.  For example, here is the healthy fish and sustainability guidance provided by Washington state:

129.  A more general-purpose source of useful information about both sustainability and pollutants is at:

130.  An example of an encyclopedia of herbs and spices:

131.  Ruminant-derived trans fats:

132.  Dairy fat and cardiovascular disease:

133.  Could low-fat be worse than whole milk?

134.  Why butter is good for you:

135.  Eggs and heart health:

136.  Nutritional value of egg whites vs. yolks:

137.  Too much water:

138.  How much water to drink:

139.  IoM report on water intake:

140.  Electrolytes:

141.  Planning a healthy vegetarian diet:

142.  Sugar in Britain: statistics from the book, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History, by Sidney Mintz, quoted in

143.  USA sugar consumption 2008:


145.  Sucralose can potentially damage your gut microbiome balance:

146.  Artificial sweeteners:

147.  Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet:

148.  HCA and PAH:

149.  Note that nitrates and nitrites, in and of themselves, are probably not harmful, and may even be beneficial ( Nitrates occur naturally in lots of vegetables and can be converted in the body to nitrites (, which in turn creates nitric oxide, known to help in the control of blood pressure.

150.  BPA, Bisphenol A:

151.  While there has been a general reduction in trans fats in food products, trans fats may exist in amounts less than 0.5 percent, even in packages marked as containing 0 percent. Trans fats, zero doesn’t mean zero:

152.  The Okinawa Diet and Hara Hachi Bu:

153.  More lycopene available from cooked tomato:

154.  Soil depletion and nutrition loss:

155.  Mental health: a state of well-being:

156.  What is homeostasis?

157.  Benefits of mindfulness:; Mindfulness interventions:


159.  Mindfulness a chore?

160.  MBSR:

161.  MBSR reduction:



164.  Reviews of mindfulness books:

165.  Online sources for getting started in mindfulness:

166.  Examples of online Mindfulness courses:;,360741&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL;

167.  Mindfulness apps:;

168.  Mindful Breathing Practice:

169.  The value of sadness:

170.  Davidson, K.W., Mostofsky, E. & Whang, W. (2010). “Don’t worry, be happy: Positive effect and reduced 10-year incident coronary heart disease; The Canadian Nova Scotia Health Survey.” European Heart Journal, 31, 1065-1070.

171.  Research shows how stress can lead to heart attacks and stroke:

172.  Stress fuels cancer spread by triggering master gene:

173.  The effects of stress exposure on prefrontal cortex:

174.  Psychological stress, through an increase in glucocorticoids, compromises the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis and so can reduce the effectiveness of the barrier function: Denda, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Elias, P.M.; Feingold, K.R. (2000). “Stress alters cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis.” Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 278 (2): R367–372. PMID 10666137.


176.  City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans:

177.  Helliwell, J., Layard, R., & Sachs, J. (2017). World Happiness Report 2017, New York; Sustainable Development Solutions Network:

178.  Heart Rate Variability:

179.  Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., and Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386-396.

180.  Download PDF of the Perceived Stress Scale form:

181.  Two examples of websites for PSS-based stress testing (there are many more): and

182.  Sleep statistics:

183.  Why lack of sleep is bad for your health:

184.  While you call it quits for the day, your mind does some serious work:

185.  How sleep deprivation affects your heart:

186.  Sleep and immune function:

187.  World Sleep Survey:

188.  The Physiology of Sleep—The Cardiovascular System:

189.  Sleep and immune function:

190.  Sleep-stress cycle:

191.  How to break the stress-sleep cycle:

192.  Sleep deprived:

193.  The myth of the eight hour sleep:

194.  Siesta is good for you:

195.  How many neurons do we have? Also, “The search for true numbers of neurons and glial cells in the human brain: A review of 150 years of cell counting.” von Bartheld CS1, Bahney J2, Herculano-Houzel S3.



198.  Glia:

199.  Glial cells:

200.  The effects of stress exposure on prefrontal cortex:

201.  A two-year multidomain intervention of diet, exercise, cognitive training and vascular risk monitoring versus control to prevent cognitive decline in at-risk elderly people (FINGER): a randomized controlled trial. Tia Ngandu and others in Lancet Neurology, Vol 15, No. 5. April 2016.

202.  “Experts agree that in the vast majority of cases, Alzheimer’s, like other common chronic conditions, probably develops as a result of complex interactions among multiple factors, including age, genetics, environment, lifestyle and coexisting medical conditions.” (

203.  Mental strain helps maintain a healthy brain:

204.  “A number of studies indicate that maintaining strong social connections and keeping mentally active as we age might lower the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s.” (

205.  “Regular physical exercise may be a beneficial strategy to lower the risk of Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia. Exercise may directly benefit brain cells by increasing blood and oxygen flow in the brain.” (

206.  The expression “mens sana in corpora sano” (a healthy mind in a healthy body) is attributed to the poet Juvenal around 100 A.D.

207.  “Several conditions known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease—such as high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol—also increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s. Some autopsy studies show that as many as 80 percent of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease also have cardiovascular disease.” (

208.  “Current evidence suggests that heart-healthy eating may also help protect the brain.” (

209.  Serine and neuroprotection:

210.  Omega-3 for the brain:

211.  Why your brain needs water:

212.  The Gut Microbiome and the Brain:

213.  Parkinson’s disease “may start in gut”:

214.  MIND=Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay

215.  DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

216.  Some biologists argue that the eye and optic nerves count as part of the CNS because they are so close to and partly protected by the brain. Others disagree. This is an academic quibble.

217.  NFL CTE survey:


219.  Lead poisoning and health:

220.  Common waterborne contaminants:

221.  Gene therapy:;

222.  TALEN and CRISPR:

223.  SPC:

224.  Bioelectronics:;

225.  Cancer, evolution research:


227.  Liver damage:

228.  Alcohol consumption and cancer risk:

229.  Alcohol use before and during pregnancy implications for the prevention of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders:

230.  Brain damage from alcohol:

231.  Weight gain from alcohol:

232.  Weight gain in relation to history of amount and type of alcohol:

233.  Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes—a systematic review and meta-analysis:

234.  Links between alcohol abuse and depression:

235.  Alcohol intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in men:

236.  Alcohol consumption and risk of dementia:

237.  Alcohol and risk of becoming overweight:

238.  Alcohol and cardiovascular health—the razor-sharp double-edged sword:

239.  Relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and adiponectin and insulin sensitivity:

240.  Red wine consumption increases antioxidant status and decreases oxidative stress in the circulation of both young and old humans:

241.  Silicon and bone health:

242.  Arginine:

243.  Asparagine and breast cancer:

244.  Creatine:

245.  Creatine as a supplement:

246.  Creatine problems:

247.  N-acetyl cysteine:

248.  Glycine:

249.  Glycine uses and risks:

250.  Lysine:

251.  Lysine for cold sores:;

252.  Methionine:

253.  Serine as neuro-protective:

254.  Serine:

255.  Threonine:

256.  Tryptophan:

257.  Tyrosine:

258.  Valine:

259.  Thiamine:

260.  Riboflavin:

261.  Niacin:

262.  vitamin B6:

263.  vitamin B6:

264.  Biotin:


266.  Benefits and Risks of Folic Acid:

267.  vitamin B12:

268.  vitamin B12 supplements for vegans:

269.  vitamin E:

270.  Almonds:

271.  Brazil nuts:

272.  Cinnamon and Chronic Diseases:

273.  Most supermarket cinnamon is the Saigon variety, also called cassia cinnamon; recent research suggests that Ceylon cinnamon is just as good, and less likely to harm your liver. An ingredient in cassia cinnamon called coumarin increases the chance of liver damage and might also interact adversely with some painkillers and anticoagulants. Ceylon cinnamon, which is harvested from a different species of tree and contains much less coumarin, provides at least some of the same health benefits without the adverse affects on the liver. It is also possible to buy cassia cinnamon extract where the coumarin has been removed. But don’t expect any health benefits from eating cinnamon pastries no matter which type of cinnamon they use. (Too much sugar and white flour.)

274.  Garlic:

275.  Ginger root:

276.  Green Tea benefits:

277.  Nuts for nutrition:

278.  Salvia for dementia therapy:

279.  Walnuts are the healthiest nut:

280.  NGCS:

281.  The list of causes of digestive problems is long. In addition to poor gut flora condition and mental stress, we can add lack of exercise, too much alcohol, too much sugar and refined starches, undercooked lectin-containing foods, eating too much at one time, and more. There are many ingredients in wheat (other than gluten) that are known to contribute to the severity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), so reducing wheat intake may help some people with IBS.

282.  Benefits of lectins: Medical use of lectins:

283.  Lectins and digestive problems: